Category Archives: Brasil

Brazil Solar Photovoltaic

Photovoltaic solar energy in Brazil has taken important steps in self-sufficiency and net balance.

Distributed generation is entering the country more easily than large-scale facilities.

It is betting on a model of small and medium power generation plants for households and businesses consumption.

This is excellent news.

In 2012 standards were approved to reduce barriers for distributed generation and small power facilities for micro (up to 100 kW) and minigeneración (100 kW to 1 MW).

Since its publication in 2012 until March 2015, 534 systems (500 photovoltaic, 19 wind, 10 solar / wind hybrid, 4 biogas and 1 hydraulic) were installed.

In late 2015 the government launched the ProGD program that includes tax exemptions and special credit lines. It expects to reach 23.5 GW of installations, most photovoltaic, in 2030.

To achieve this goal, barriers to grid connection should be reduced, standards system power compensation should be harmonize with the terms of the offer, target audience should be increase and improvements in the application of the standard should be achieve.

The government has announced a ICMS (Imposto on Circulação of Mercadorias) reduction, levied 18% on imports and is one of the world highest.

In 2016 it also announced the exemption from Industrial Products Tax (IPI) for photovoltaic components that are not produced locally.

These taxes and fees added to the Inmetro (National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality) Certification and Supplemental ISS rate, which municipalities retain on services not taxed by the ICMS (2% to 5%) represent a significant barrier to the development of photovoltaic in Brazil.

Industry sources indicate that import components to produce solar energy in Brazil now, means supporting a tax charge between 60% and 405%.

The opportunity for large scale photovoltaic solar energy has come up with the first time participation in the A-5 energy auction in December 2013 and the Pernambuco state auction same year.

Fontes I and II solar plants with 11 MW in Tacaratu, Pernambuco, and to Fontes dos Ventos wind farm of 80 MW, form a hybrid solar-wind complex of 91 MW; the first of its kind in the country.

Both projects have a 20 years solar power purchase agreement (PPA) and are the largest photovoltaic plant in operation in the country.

In the course of the 1st Reserve Energy Leilão 2015, promoted by the Brazilian Federal Government, 30 photovoltaic projects have been awarded 1,043 GWp. that will mobilize more than U$D 1,187 million investment.

The average final price of U$D 83,3271/MWh hired implies a discount of 13.5% over the initial price and a great success, reaching one of the lowest prices in the world.

The awarded projects are located in the states of Bahia, Piauí, Paraíba, Minas Gerais and Tocantins. Are 20 years contracts of energy sale, valid from 1 August 2017.

The last photovoltaic government plan sets a target for 2024 of 7 GW in large scale installations and 1.32 GW in distributed generation, doubling their previous plans for 2023.

The first solar modules factory in Brazil began operating in Valinhos in 2015 with an annual production capacity of 580,000 modules.

It aims to implement a new production line in 2016 to manufacture up to 1 million modules per year.

Solar Thermal Brazil

According to the IEA, Brazil is 4th in solar thermal installed capacity in the world ranking, but 32nd in solar thermal energy per capita among 57 countries.

Irradiation is extremely high in Brazil. The lowest level is in Santa Catarina, still 30% higher than the average in Germany.

Between 2009 and 2013, the Brazilian production of solar collectors grew at an annual average of over 15%, reaching an installed capacity of 9,6 million m2.

In 2012 Brazil accounted 1/3 global market of flat and pool heating collectors produced, with 965 MW, followed by Germany and the US.

Was the 5th country in solar collectors installed in 2013.

One aspect to improve are laws and regulations.

Many municipal laws are being implemented since 2006 and a few are already a reality in some cities like São Paulo.

Proposals to offer incentives for clean technologies and discounts on electricity fee to facilities equipped with solar water heating are also implemented.

In 2014, the Brazilian solar thermal park production reached 7,354 GWh from a total area of 11,24 million m2 of solar collectors installed in the country.

This year, collectors for solar water heating production grew by 4,5%, with the installation of 1,44 million m2 of collectors.

Considering a residential consumption average of 166 kWh / month, this amount of energy is enough to power 3,7 million households over one year. The city of São Paulo has 3,9 million homes.

Higher sales of solar thermal systems in 2014 were recorded in the Southeast with 61,94%, followed by the South with 21,81%, the Center-West with 10,44%. Regions with less market share were Northeast and North, with 4,51% and 1,69%, respectively.

51% of sales in 2014 was allocated to the residential segment, compared to 9% in 2013.

But the big news was use of solar energy in industry expanding. 17% in 2014 compared to 3% in 2013.

By contrast, housing programs sales was reduced from 19% to 16% in 2014.

Commercial and services segments also recorded a 16% in 2014.

The Basic Sanitation Company of São Paulo State (Sabesp) has installed a Treatment Plant Wastewater solar heater in Taubaté and Trebembé cities. The system heat water to 55 ° C for two centrifuges and other washing elements.

Low-income families in towns of Lorraine and Cachoeira Paulista, in São Paulo state, will benefit from the project “Good Solar Energy”, which envisages the installation of solar thermal energy in more than 383 homes, plus kits with fluorescent lamps.

Solar Brazil

Brazil is rich in natural resources. 44% of its energy comes from renewables.

Is the leader in biofuels production and has a very important contribution of hydroelectric plants.

It is between developing countries with most installed wind power, especially in the coastal area of Maranhao, Piaui, Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte.

The PROINFA program established the incorporation of 3300 MW of renewable energy. Large investments in wind and biomass were performed. However, solar has not been considered in energy integration; especially in large-scale plants connected to the grid.

The green energy Brazilian matrix was envied by many nations and the government was convinced that the country had the status of economic superpower.

Three-quarters of Brazil’s electricity came from hydroelectric plants and automobiles are moved mainly by sugar cane ethanol.

The country had just discovered huge oil reserves off its coast.

Today the picture is not as promising.

Oil production is falling and electricity rationing is discussed, which further depress the economy.

The problems began when Brazil tried to increase control over their resources and it spooked investors.

They deepened because the country has a strong dependence on hydroelectric (2/3 generation) and faces one of its worst droughts.

The reality is that Brazil’s power sector is plagued by inefficiencies.

The new oil law passed in 2010 sought to ensure state control over large deposits discovered under the sea off the states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, demanding that Petrobras increase its controlling interest in the exploration and production.

Companies with long-term projects in Brazil reduced their plans or simply left the country.

But most damaging were gasoline prices policies.

The government prevented to Petrobras raise the prices of gasoline and diesel to contain inflation and the company incurred their first losses in 13 years.

The artificially cheap gasoline turned uncompetitive the local biofuels industry. The producers responded by cutting production, which shot ethanol prices.

Each liter of gasoline takes 1/4 of ethanol, so that increased the cost of gasoline.

To prevent an inflation increase, the government reduced the percentage of ethanol in the mixture at 20% at the end of 2011.

With refineries at full capacity, Petrobras was forced to import gasoline at market prices and sell at a loss.

The other big blow was the government’s plan to force a 20% fall in electricity prices in 2014, sliding that electricity companies would have to settle for lower profit margins.

The investor response was to sell companies shares. Eletrobras shares, the largest generator in Latin America, lost this year more than 2 decades of profits.

Although solar energy was not considered in the PROINFA and there is no state strategy to encourage it, Brazil has implemented several programs especially for electrification in rural communities.

The most important has been the PRODEEM, which was a leap for local solar industry know-how with a significant involvement in research and universities.

The other was the “Light for All” program, promoted by the state government in 2003 with the ambitious goal of bringing electricity to 10 million people.