The Networking Power

All started around 1 year ago, with the occasional encounter between a solar energy expert and a digital marketing expert.

Throughout these 12 months:

* The blog you are reading at this moment is launched.

It includes a Latin American region solar sector research work.

Three post from each of the 20 countries in the region will describe their renewable energy matrix, their domestic applications solar thermal sector and their photovoltaic sector.

Also contents about solar technology, current information and new developments are included.

* A solar e-learning web site that allows you to entirely receive solar energy training from your PC, Tablet or Smartphone wherever you are; was set up on a 3.1 Moodle platform.

* 3 ebooks exclusively sold on Amazon (Introduction to Solar Energy) and Casa del Libro (Technical-Commercial Solar Thermal Energy Manual and Technical-Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Energy Manual) were made.

* Solar Layout was developed, the most intuitive solar app for solar collectors and solar modules at installation site positioning.


* Participated in projects development and management (not only in Latin America).

* Equipment and turnkey solar thermal, photovoltaic and solar lighting solutions were commercialized.

* We have been Media Partner of the most important solar energy event at regional level, Intersolar South America.

All this was possible thanks to changes and transformations that in IT, telecommunications and work sectors have occurred in recent years.

Currently professionals situated in different locations can create, exchange information, interact in a virtual way, develop and manage projects.

Work teams are flexible. They are born, transformed and mutated depending on business opportunities.

The fuel for all this to work has been a powerful solar and linked sectors professionals and companies networking that increases day by day with Social Media impulse.

Resultado de imagen de solar networking

What we could call “stable cast” is the following:

+ Marcelo Ferrari – CEO

+ Nahuel Rull – Argentina Country Manager

+ Tomás Ruiz – Solar Thermal Energy Expert

+ Francisco Ramírez – Photovoltaic Solar Energy Expert

+ Federico Redin – Facilities Expert

+ Dante Fiorini – Digital Marketing Expert

+ Rafael Chacón Almeda – E-learning Expert

+ Antonio Vites – SEO & SEM Expert

+ Sergio Fernandez Alonso – Programming and Apps Development Expert.

We want to wish you a prosperous 2017 in which we hope to continue collaborating in your solar energy projects and count on you to continue tending the Sopelia Network.

Photovoltaic Effect

The solar energy direct conversion into electrical energy uses the physical phenomenon called photovoltaic effect of light radiation with valence electrons interaction in semiconductor media.

In conventional crystalline silicon cell case, 4 of the normally silicon atom 14 electrons are valence atoms and therefore can participate in interactions with other atoms (both silicon and other elements).

Two adjacent pure silicon atoms have a pair of electrons in common.

There is a strong electrostatic bond between an electron and the two atoms it helps together hold.

That link can be separated by a certain energy amount.

If the supplied energy is sufficient, the electron is brought to a higher energy level (conduction band), where it is free to move.

When it passes to the conduction band, the electron leaves a “hollow” behind, that is to say a vacuum where an electron is missing. A nearby electron can easily fill the gap, thus exchanging space with it.

To take advantage of electricity it is necessary to create a coherent electrons movement (and voids) by an electric field inside the cell.

The field is formed with physical and chemical treatments that create an excess of positively charged atoms in one part of the semiconductor and an excess of negatively charged atoms in the other.

This is obtained by introducing small amounts of boron (positively charged) and phosphorus (negatively charged) atoms into the silicon crystalline structure, ie doping the semiconductor.

The electrostatic attraction between the two atomic species creates a fixed electric field that gives the cell the so-called diode structure, in which the current passage is obstructed in one direction and facilitated in the opposite one.

In phosphor doped layer, which has 5 outer electrons against the 4 silicon, a negative charge formed by a valence electron is present for each phosphorus atom.

In doped layer with boron, which has 3 outer electrons, a positive charge formed by the voids present in boron atoms when combined with silicon is created.

Resultado de imagen de electrones silicio cristalino

The first layer, negative charge, is denoted by N; the other, positively charged, with P; the separation zone is called P-N junction.

When the two layers are approached, an electronic flow is activated from the N zone to the P zone, which, when the electrostatic equilibrium is reached, determines a positive excess of charge in the N zone and an excess of negative charge in zone P.

The result is a device internal electric field that separates the excess electrons generated by the absorption of the light in the corresponding holes, pushing them in opposite directions (the electrons towards the zone N and the holes towards the zone P) so that a circuit can collect the current generated.

Therefore, when light hits the photovoltaic cell, positive charges are pushed in increasing numbers towards cell top and negative charges towards the bottom, or vice versa, depending on cell type.

Resultado de imagen de efecto fotovoltaico

If lower and upper part are connected by a conductor, the free loads pass through it and an electric current is obtained.

While the cell remains light exposed, electricity flows regularly as direct current.

Conversion efficiency in commercial silicon cells normally ranges from 13% to 20%.

Typical photovoltaic cell has a total thickness of between 0.25 and 0.35 mm.

It is generally square in shape, has a surface area between 100 and 225 mm² and produces (with a radiation of 1 kW / m² at a temperature of 25 ° C) a current between 3 and 4 A, a voltage of approximately 0.5 V and a corresponding power of 1.5-2 Wp.

This is an extract of contents included in Technical-Commercial Photovoltaic Solar Energy Manual and e-learning training of Sopelia.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

El Salvador Solar Thermal

Great was our surprise when we began to carry out the research work on El Salvador domestic solar thermal energy applications sector.

Considering that in country central region solar irradiation is high (5.3 kWh/m2/day), compared with other locations such as Germany or Tokyo (3.3 kWh/m2/day), the potential is enormous.

Given the almost non-existent information available (and official agencies lack of response), we decided to consult professionals and companies in the renewable energy sector of El Salvador.

The conclusions are:

1) There are very few companies that offer solar thermal equipment (some, including inventory they wish to liquidate due to low sales volume)

2) Unfortunately local mentality still focuses more on initial investment than on long-term savings from electricity consumption expenditure reduction

3) The use is practically limited to hotel and hospital sectors and is irrelevant in residential sector

4) There is no normative that regulates and promotes sector development.

Resultado de imagen de solar térmica el salvador

This situation, which is repeated in many Latin American countries with solar resource great potential, raises the question of why solar thermal development is so inferior in relation to photovoltaics.

To answer this question we will make a brief comparison between both solar technologies:

– Domestic solar thermal applications

+ It is a simpler technology

+ It is more efficient respect to the space used

+ Higher yields are obtained (around 40% for solar collectors compared to maximum 20% of solar modules)

+ Solar fraction can easily exceed 70% in locations with medium-high radiation level

+ It is a technology with lower level of complexity in its installation

Aspects to consider:

* System performance is much lower in winter months, when hot water needs are higher

* If there is frost risk in system site, antifreeze use in heat transfer fluid is indispensable.

Resultado de imagen de solar térmica el salvador

– Photovoltaic solar energy applications

+ Photovoltaic systems are more versatile

+ Photovoltaic modules have longer service life (30 years with a guarantee of 20 years by almost all manufacturers) than thermal solar collectors (10 years with between 1 to 5 years guarantee)

+ Frost does not affect them

Aspects to consider:

* Higher investment compared to solar thermal system of equivalent power

* Grid connected systems are subject to numerous bureaucratic procedures and taxes that lengthen its amortization time

* It is a newer technology that needs technical advances to improve its performance and efficiency.

We can conclude that the balance is slightly tilted in favor of solar thermal.

So, why photovoltaics development is bigger?

The answer is that solar thermal is developed almost exclusively in distributed energy generation way, while solar photovoltaic does it mainly from large central power plants.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

Free Solar Tools (I)

On Internet we can find free tools for basic or low complexity solar systems dimensioning and for certain components or accessories estimation.

Sopelia research team has carried out an exhaustive search and testing from which a new corporate website section called Free Solar Tools has been created.

Selected tools were classified into 4 categories.

Today we will analyze the first one: Solar Resource and Other Baseline Data.

In this category we will find data about solar resource and other variables to consider in order to estimate the energy that solar system will provide in our location.

It is the starting data for necessary solar system dimensioning in order to satisfy our energy demand.

Tools order is not random. We have prioritized the most intuitive, the most universal and those that can be online used without download.

For this first category our selection is the following:

1) Meteorological and solar energy data

Sponsored by NASA Science Applications Program and developed by the World Prediction Energy Resources Project, this site offers information and supporting documentation for solar systems dimensioning. The “Data Retrieval” section that interests us is “Meteorology and Solar Energy” and within it, “Data Tables for a Particular Location”. Once there, entering Latitude and Longitude of our location, we access a series of calculation parameters that we can select or obtain entirety.

Resultado de imagen de nasa

2) Daily and annual solar calculator

Spreadsheet developed by US NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory based on Jean Meeus astronomical equations algorithms. It allows to calculate solar day, year and location specific data.

Resultado de imagen de noaa

3) Renewable energies Global Atlas

Geographic Online Information System (GIS) interrelated worldwide distributed centers data. In addition to information about renewable energy resources you can access information such as population density, topography, land use, infrastructure and protected areas. The objective of this system is to allow users to identify areas of interest for further exploration. It is an initiative that involves national institutes, energy agencies, private companies and international organizations.

Resultado de imagen de international renewable energy agency

4) Opensolar

Open database (you can extract and insert information) with global average daily solar radiation data for each month of the year measured on the surface.


5) Monthly average radiation calculation

Tool developed by IDEA research group to calculate monthly average radiation on arbitrarily oriented and inclined surfaces.

Resultado de imagen de universidad de jaén

Accessing Free Solar Tools section of Sopelia’s corporate website you will find the links to get these tools and begin to configure your future solar system.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

The Real Energy Revolution

We are witnessing an unprecedented growth of renewable energies participation in global energy matrix.

But why does the average citizen not perceive the benefits and feel somehow alien to this process ?

The main reason is that this participation is built on an already obsolete energy matrix paradigm.

The 3 pillars of the future energy matrix are:

1) Energy efficiency

In this element the consumer is the variable of greater weight.

The transformation is related to a energy consumption habits profound change. It is very difficult to happen in those countries with a high subsidy component in their energy tariffs.

The other important aspect and on which the states can directly act is the stimulus for more efficient devices acquisition.

The energy efficiency generates a lower demand and therefore a decrease of generation investment.

Resultado de imagen de eficiencia energética

2) Renewable energies

In energy-importing countries (mostly in Latam) renewables development is an instrument to improve payments balance.

In any world country, a means to boost and make the economy more competitive.

Investment in a solar system is very high in countries that do not manufacture equipment compared to those that do.

Let us illustrate this with a concrete example: in the largest producer of solar modules (China) W FOB value is around US$ 0.50. That solar module placed outside destination country customs, for example Argentina, costs US$ 1.20 (+ 140%). If we add the commercial margin of the companies that sell and the companies that install them, the final consumer ends up paying US$ 2.50 / W (+ 400%).

The companies awarded renewable energy public tenders in countries where no equipment is manufactured do not pay import taxes for equipment and are exempt from most taxes.

It is a utopia the idea of short and medium term local equipment manufacturing if the country does not have the capacity to convert silicon to solar-grade silicon or technology to manufacture evacuated vacuum tubes. Especially if we consider the aggressive decrease in solar equipment price of last 5 years.

Resultado de imagen de energías renovables

3) Distributed generation

Distributed generation systems surpass those of centralized generation in national security (attacks, warlike conflicts, etc.) and supply continuity (natural catastrophes and seasonal peaks cuts) questions.

Distributed generation is also a wealth redistribution way, giving consumer the opportunity to generate the energy he consumes and the possibility of obtaining an income from the surplus.

New energy infrastructure investments should be directed towards interconnecting and renewables integrating systems and abandoning the paradigm of an already obsolete energy matrix (distribution from centralized generation plants).

Efforts to develop large wind and solar generation should be redirected to distributed generation systems development.

Large plants should be only a complement, located only in locations where renewable resource potential is very high and take advantage primarily of rooftop and ceilings surface instead of being placed in soils that could have other uses.

Fingers and toes are enough to count worldwide renewable sector EPC companies of a certain scale projects.

These companies are itinerant. They land in countries with great potential where the ban is lifted.

In Europe the main countries of the itinerary were Spain, France, Italy and now United Kingdom.

In Latin America they went to Chile, Brazil, Mexico and now Argentina.

The myth that this type of projects generates a large number of stable jobs is false. The work is intensive only at construction time. Then the operation and maintenance of these plants is relatively simple and is done remotely with very little personnel on field.

We are not against renewable generation plants development, what we manifest is that the energy matrix paradigm is the one that is already obsolete.

The renewable resource generates energy where it is available. If we take advantage of it there, we avoid all expenses and eliminate all energy losses inherent to the distribution of that energy.

Stable jobs generation and sustainable economic renewable sector development go hand in hand with distributed generation and prosumer (residential, industrial and services) figure development.

Solar is the ideal renewable energy for distributed generation because it has the highest integration into urban environment level.

Resultado de imagen de generación distribuida

Countries that take the following steps to achieve the future energy matrix, will make their economy more competitive:

• Stimulating efficient devices acquisition (special financing, tax exemptions) or taxing non efficient devices acquisition

• Eliminate import taxes on renewable equipment inputs that cannot be manufactured in the short and medium term and focus industrial effort on imported inputs supplemented with local raw material inputs

• Give priority to distributed generation and prosumers creation over large generation power plants development

• Invest in interconnection and renewables integration energy infrastructure and gradually abandon the obsolete energy matrix (large power systems – distribution).

It is a long process but, like every great journey, it begins by taking a step.

Municipalities (in solar thermal energy) and Provinces (in photovoltaic solar energy) have the power to promote solar distributed generation development.

There are examples on which they can work to adapt to each local reality and to introduce improvements to avoid mistakes.

In distributed solar thermal energy, an example can be the Spanish Technical Building Code (CTE). An improvement to introduce to this referent could be the obligation of a periodic maintenance to verify the system good operation and to corroborate solar fraction required is reached.

In distributed photovoltaic solar energy, an example may be the net-metering regime of some US states (eg California). In this case, the implementation of complementary financial tools (special financing, leasing), that have promoted its great development, could be imitated.

Conditions (political and economic stability) must be created for desired events to occur.

Reality cannot be modified by laws.

For example, if a Latin American province has regulations to promote distributed generation since 2013 and in 3 years have connected 10 systems, it means that we are doing something wrong.

As in all life aspects of any individual or society, goals must be set (ambitious but at same time achievable) in order to achieve success, deadlines must be set and periodic measurements must be made to introduce improvements and correct errors.

This is very difficult if long-term energy policies that surpass current government are not adopted.

For now, short term rules.

It is easier to sit down with a few to negotiate and cut tapes for the photo, than work seriously and in the long run for general interest.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

Solar Thermal Energy

Solar thermal energy systems for domestic applications will be increasingly present in the built landscape and will be promoted by regulations such as solar ordinances or future building technology standards.

The most basic system is the compact equipment called thermosiphon, which incorporates all subsystems and where the fluid circulates naturally (difference in densities).

Resultado de imagen de termosifón solar

Solar thermal systems use the sun’s rays to get hot water or air.

Special plates, called collectors, concentrate and accumulate Sun heat and transmit it to the fluid we want to heat.

This fluid can be home’s drinking water or home’s heating or cooling hydraulic system.

Generally a thermal solar energy system is constituted by several subsystems, which in turn can be considered as interdependent systems connected to each other.

However, sometimes the same physically independent element performs several functions within the solar system.

These different subsystems are:

a) Capture system: composed of solar collectors. They are responsible for receiving the solar radiation and transmit it to the fluid that circulates inside.

Imagen relacionada

b) Accumulation system: composed of one or more deposits to accumulate the hot water generated up to the moment of its use.

Resultado de imagen de tanque solar térmico

c) Hydraulic system: composed of the pumps and pipes through which the working fluid circulates. A primary circuit transports the energy captured to the accumulator. The circulation of the fluid through the pipes is performed by a circulation pump or by natural circulation.

Resultado de imagen de circuito solar térmicod) Exchange system: exists in case the fluid flowing through the solar collectors is not the same as the one used by the user; for example when there is frost risk or user fluid can damage the solar system. The exchanger can be part of the same accumulator or located outside.

Resultado de imagen de intercambiador solar

e) Control system: in pumps forced circulation systems will be in charge to start and stop them. Different components system actuation (motorized valves, pumps, etc.) is done through control mechanisms.

Resultado de imagen de centralita solar térmico

f) Auxiliary energy system: generally solar system economic viability requires that total energy demand cannot be met with solar input at all times. The energy produced by solar system depends on climatic conditions and that is why an auxiliary energy production system is available. These support equipment complement the solar system in order to ensure at all times hot water service continuity.

Resultado de imagen de caldera gas

Solar thermal systems have a great similarity with conventional thermal systems.

In fact, they share all their components (pipes, protection mechanisms, accumulation tanks, exchangers, pumping groups, insulation) except one: solar collectors.

This content was extracted from Solar Thermal Energy Technical & Commercial Manual and is part of Solar e-learning.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

Solar Layout (PV)

Solar Layout is the App for collectors and solar modules on site positioning.

This is the most intuitive Solar App of the market.

To use it on field is not necessary to have an Internet connection because it works from place latitude, obtained by GPS.

Today we will see PV solar energy part.

To begin press right command represented by the figure of the house with the solar module and cable with the plug in the initial screen.


If our Smartphone GPS is not enabled, the App will ask us to activate it to locate our position.

Intermittent earth planet image immediately appear with the legend “Localizing”.

When our device GPS have located our position, the following screen appears to confirm it.


By confirming our location Solar Equipment Use Menu will display.

In the same we find 4 applications:

1- Winter use: represented by the snow image
2- All year use: represented by flower, sun, leaf and snow images
3- Spring / summer use: represented by flower and sun images
4- On-grid connection: represented by the plug image.


By selecting one of the 4 applications, Options Menu will display.

There are 3 variables in the Menu:

1- Inclination: represented by module and angle image
2- Orientation: represented by module and cardinal points image
3- Distance: represented by 3 modules rows image.


By pressing Inclination option, we get recommended inclination value for location and solar application selected, accompanied by some Tips considering losses to take into account.


Pressing Orientation option, we obtain procedure to fix modules orientation description and access to recommended compass App discharge, if we don´t have it.


Pressing Separation option, the Kind of Surface Menu is displayed for us to select the appropriate option (Horizontal / Non horizontal).

If the surface on which the modules will be placed is horizontal, we only must enter Collector Height in cm data.


If the surface on which the modules will be placed is non horizontal, in addition to Collector Height in cm data, we must enter Surface Inclination Angle data.

We will enter a positive value if it matches the modules inclination direction and a negative value if it is different.


In this way we obtain the Separation (distance) between modules rows in meters.


Pressing i button Tips related to shadows and singular locations (snow, desert and rain areas) are deployed.

Download Solar Layout and placed solar PV modules on site in the most intuitive way with Sopelia.

Solar El Salvador

In the central region of El Salvador solar irradiation is high (5.3 kWh / m2 / day) compared to other locations such as Germany or Tokyo (3.3 kWh / m2 / day).

The solar irradiation map in El Salvador was created under the SWERA project, which shows the solar irradiation potential in a one year daily average.

Resultado de imagen de energía solar el salvador

In last years the country began to work in the energy matrix diversification introducing renewable sources participation.

According National Energy Council figures at the end of 2015 the country had an installed capacity of 1,659.6 MW. Of these, about 46% is thermal generation (fossil fuel), 28.5% is hydroelectric, 12.3% is geothermal and 13.6% is generated from biomass.

In March 2015, from a partnership between a Taiwanese company and a local oil group emerged a Salvadoran company that set up a solar panel and LED light production plant.

The plant is located in San Juan Opico and becomes the first high-tech devices assemble plant in El Salvador.

In October 2015, Legislature approved Fiscal Incentives Law reforms to promote renewable energy use, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve national payments balance through fossil fuels imports reduction.

The reform affects 4 articles of the Law and is specified in:

– Inclusion of marine and biogas renewable sources, adding them to those already specified in article 1 (hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, biomass)

– Elimination of 20 MW limitation to be subject of tariff duties payment exemption for 10 years

– 5 years income tax exemption for more than 10 MW projects, maintaining 10 years term for equal or less than 10 MW projects.

In addition, it extends deadlines for SIGET to decide on project certification and the Ministry of Finance to issue tax benefits agreement to 45 business days.

Also included expansion of existing renewable generation plants as eligible projects.

In February 2016 DELSUR Electricity Distributor and regulators announced a new bidding process for 150 MW of wind and solar photovoltaic generation for 20 years from 2019.

This process begins with participatory consultation phase so that everyone can access bidding rules and make comments they deem necessary.

The resulting document must be approved by SIGET and then made available to potential bidders.

It is estimated that this new renewable energy projects bidding process will generate an investment of around U$D 300 million over the next two years and will be able to supply 250,000 households demand.

This is the second bidding process carried out for projects with these technologies installation and generated energy in the wholesale market commercialization.

Resultado de imagen de energía solar el salvador

The first process culminated successfully with 94 MW of photovoltaic technology award, which will start supplying in 2017.

The process will be coordinated by DELSUR, with the support of the rest of the country’s electricity distributors, governmental and private entities, among others.

The development of high temperature solar thermal systems has also been considered.

Studies indicate that the potential of this type of energy is high in El Salvador and, although the initial investment cost is still high, there are future development plans for concentrated solar energy.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

The Solar Energy

Solar energy is the energy obtained by capturing light and heat emitted by the sun.

Radiation power varies by time of day, weather conditions and latitude.

It can be assumed that a good surface radiation value is about 1000 W / m².

This power is known as irradiance.

Radiation is usable in direct and diffuse way, or the sum of both components.

Direct radiation comes directly from the solar focus, without intermediate reflections or refractions.

The diffuse is issued by the daytime sky thanks to the multiple reflection and solar refraction phenomena of the atmosphere, clouds and other atmospheric and terrestrial elements.

Direct radiation can be reflected and concentrated for use, while it is not possible to concentrate the diffused radiation coming from all directions.

Albedo radiation is reflected by the bodies located around the surface on which we want to assess the radiation.

The amount of energy due to sunlight direct radiation an exposed surface can intercept depends on the angle between the ray and the surface in question.

If the surface is perpendicular to the rays, this value is maximum, decreasing as the angle does.

The intensity on the surface varies in the same proportion as energy does.

This tilt effect is the reason why sunlight heat much more up at noon than in early morning or late afternoon.

It is also the reason why high-latitude regions (near the poles) received much less energy than the closest to Ecuador.

Solar coordinates used to determine Sun position referred to the horizontal plane are two:

Solar Height (h) which is the angle between the sun’s rays on the horizontal surface. The zenith angle is the rays angle with the vertical, that is, the complement of the height.

Resultado de imagen de altura solar

Solar height (northern hemisphere perspective)

Azimuth (A) which is the Sun angle rotation measured on the horizontal plane through the ray projection on said plane and taking as origin the North if we are in the southern hemisphere.

By convention, the azimuth is considered negative when the sun is to the east (morning) and positive when placed to the west (after noon).

Resultado de imagen de azimut solar


The theoretical number of sunshine hours is time length between sunrise and sunset.

In these 2 times the height of the sun is zero.

The number of sunlight hours depends on the geographical point considered and the time of year.

During the summer, the sun makes a very wide and high trajectory on the sky and is long over the horizon. The opposite happens in winter.

Resultado de imagen de trayectoria del sol y estaciones

Path of the sun in different seasons (southern hemisphere perspective)

At solar noon (instant when the azimuth is zero), the sun elevation is maximum and shadows length minimun.

The shadow on the floor of a vertical rod coincide with meridian (South-North) direction, which must be accurately determined, for example, to correctly orient solar collectors or modules.

The most important factor influencing the amount of incident solar energy on a location or particular area is cloudy days ratio that occur each year.

This content is extracted from “Introduction to Solar Energy” ebook sold exclusively at Amazon.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

Ecuador Solar PV

Ecuador is in a prime location in terms of solar resource, being almost perpendicular the radiation received, unchanged during the year and with a constant angle of incidence; characteristics that give enormous potential for photovoltaic use.

Ecuador’s solar market has developed mostly in isolated facilities for rural electrification until recently.

The first photovoltaic grid connected plant is located in the northern province of Imbabura, with 998 kW nominal power.

Resultado de imagen de fotovoltaica imbabura

To boost photovoltaic generation, in 2012 Conelec renovated 04/11 regulation and set a preferential rate of U$D 0.40 per kW / h of generation.

Under that legislation, in January 2013, the Conelec signed permits for domestic and foreign enterprises to build 355 MW of photovoltaic energy in 91 projects (15 greater than 1 MW and 76 less than 1MW).

The granting of these permits received numerous criticisms of sectors stated that rate was too high compared to hydroelectric generation cost or the same photovoltaic in other countries of the region.

The Conelec revoked building permits of several projects because concessionaires failed to meet construction schedules because funding lack. In some cases because works were started without studies or authorizations.

Representatives of some projects construction companies said that delays and permits revocation were due a number of construction bureaucratic obstacles, in addition to lack of funding.

Initially, the National Finance Corporation (CFN) announced that would finance such projects, promise did not materialize.

Companies that completed their projects said they had no problems with control entities and requested they be allowed to take over the unfinished projects.

The stark reality is that by the end of 2013 operated in Ecuador 4 MW photovoltaic.

During 2014 new PV installed capacity was 22 MW, bringing the installed capacity in 26 MW in early 2015.

The accumulated installed capacity stagnated below 30 MW since during 2015 virtually no photovoltaic MW was added in the country.

Given that in January 2013 agreements for over 300 MW photovoltaic projects were closed, it is clear that progress is much slower than initially expected.

Resultado de imagen de fotovoltaica ecuador

Ecuador does not have a framework to regulate and promote the photovoltaic distributed generation.

According to the 2015 National Energy Balance, electricity generation corresponds to 45.6% hydropower; 0.3% wind energy; 0.1% solar energy and 1.6% biomass energy.

Solar energy in Latam with Sopelia.