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Green Projects Financing

Many renewable energy projects have all the permits and have made the necessary (technical and economic) assessments that clearly demonstrate their great potential and cost-effectiveness.

Why aren´t they carried out ?

Simply because they don´t find the financing these kind of long term projects need.

Which projects can access affordable financing immediately ?

They are called RTB (Ready to Build), which basically count on:

* Technical and economic study
* Environmental impact assessment
* Grid connection point assigned
* PPA signed or electricity sales price fixed.

Resultado de imagen de financiación de proyectos verdes

To arrive at this categorization, initial kick is to make a terrain on which project is intended to develop evaluation respect to following variables:

– Unevenness
– Renewable resource availability
– Kms distance to paved transport routes
– Kms distance to electrical substation.

From this first analysis it is decided whether or not it is worthwhile to elaborate the project.

On June 3rd, 2017, Sopelia has become Representative Fiduciary Agent for Latin America of a major Abu Dhabi Investment Fund.

This Investment Fund collects and manages a multimillion-dollar portfolio of local, regional and international investments, which wishes to reinvest in projects financing to third investors, project owners and business facilitators in general at an annual interest rate of 3%.

These must be long-term investment projects that can generate an acceptable ROI during funding period.

Funding amounts range from a minimum of U$D 1 million to a maximum of U$D 10.9 billion.

The financing access process is very easy and transparent, with a direct relationship with investor once project qualifies established criteria.

We invite all renewable energy projects owners to send us their initiatives for our previous review.

After this preliminary stage, Investment Fund Board of Directors will analyze the project to determine if it is within the scope of our financing.

Resultado de imagen de evaluación de proyectos

Subsequently, a group of consultants will conduct a reevaluation and evaluation (due diligence).

This is the most important step in financing considering process.

The due diligence defines the terms and conditions to approve the financing and these conditions will be the basis of agreement that will be signed by Investment Fund and project owner.

As soon as due diligence process is completed, the Investment Fund will officially make a financing offer to project owner in very clear and precise terms.

Once terms have been established to grant the loan and if terms and conditions are declared acceptable by project owner, he is invited to sign the financing agreement to officially confirm Investment Fund’s project contribution.

All you need is Sun. All you need is Sopelia.

Vacuum Tubes Collector

Within group of solar collectors without concentration are the vacuum tubes collectors.

Currently they are the most used.

As was seen in flat collector’s analysis, conversion of radiant energy from the sun to thermal energy leads to radiation, conduction and convection losses that progressively decrease the yield as temperature difference between collector and environment increases.

Improvement provided by vacuum tube collectors is to avoid conduction and convection losses.

If less heat is lost, we will in most cases obtain more yield for same amount of Sun energy.

We will see that this is not always the case and depends on temperature of use.

Vacuum collectors find their main application in intermediate temperature systems (heating, air conditioning, industrial processes, etc.) and in cold places with high differences between collector temperature and the environment.

The vacuum technique used by fluorescent tubes manufacturers has been developed and is the one used by vacuum tube manifolds manufacturers.

Vacuum tube collector systems are based on evacuated tubes.

These are formed by two concentric tubes between which the air has been sucked up producing a vacuum. At one end, both tubes are joined by sealing the vacuum. Inside both tubes are located the different types of absorbers that determine the different systems.

Single evacuated tubes are evacuated tubes, assembled directly with accumulation tank or independently, which may contain only water or water plus antifreeze.

A dark colored layer of absorbent material is located on evacuated tube inner wall.

When solar radiation strikes the absorbent material layer it is transformed into heat and raises the temperature of the fluid that is in contact with it.

The fluid is heated by convection and begins to rise through the tube being replaced by cold fluid which in turn heats up and restarts the process.

This type of vacuum tube offers the advantage of having the aforementioned few heat losses and the disadvantages of being very sensitive to pressure.

Resultado de imagen de colector solar tubos evacuados

U-Pipe vacuum manifolds are used both in individual collectors and in compact solar systems with integrated tank.

Absorber can be placed on tube wall as in evacuated tube case or on an absorbent material sheet.

In any case, absorber is run on its surface by a pipe (preferably copper) through which the fluid raises its temperature in contact with it flows.

U-Pipe tube manifolds have the advantage of being able to adopt both horizontal and vertical position without impairing their performance since tube can rotate on its axis by tilting absorber in the most appropriate way in case the absorber has sheet shape.

Resultado de imagen de colector solar u pipe

Finally, in vacuum tube technology we find heat pipe manifolds.

They employ a mechanism consisting of a closed tube into which a vaporizing fluid (alcohol mixture) of specific properties is introduced.

When sun hits absorber attached to the tube, fluid evaporates and absorbs heat (latent heat). As gas rises above liquid to top of the tube where the cold spot is located. There it liquefies (condenses) and yields its latent heat to the fluid we are interested in heating by falling back to tube bottom by capillarity or gravity.

This process (evaporation – condensation) is repeated for sun’s radiation duration or until collector has reached a very high temperature (around 130 ° C or more).

They have the advantage that each tube is independent being able to change in full system operation. It is highly frost resistant.

Since tubes can also rotate on their axis, it is possible to adopt vertical and horizontal positions as in the case of U-Pipe systems, although in this case generally a minimum tube inclination (between 15º and 20º according to manufacturer) to allow fluid, once liquefied, to fall by gravity.

There are 3 qualities of these collectors:

– Dry union: heat exchange occurs without direct contact between heat transfer fluid and tube, which makes them very suitable in areas with unfavorable water qualities.

– Diode function: heat transfer is always carried out only in one direction, from absorber to heat transfer fluid, and never other way round.

– Temperature limitation: evaporation – condensation cycle takes place as long as vaporizing fluid critical temperature is not reached, thus avoiding uncontrolled temperature rise inside the tubes risks.

Resultado de imagen de colector solar heat pipe

This content was extracted from the Solar Thermal Energy Technical-Commercial Manual and is part of Solar e-learning.

All you need is Sun. All you need is Sopelia.

Haití Solar Energy

Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world, where electricity is only available for very few people, while the vast population majority can only rely on kerosene lamps for lighting and on wood from the forests for other uses.

For a long time, Haiti has suffered problems in its energy supply, so much so that more than 70% of its population does not have daily access to a reliable electricity source.

The country covers all of its energy demand with supplies from Petrocaribe, a regional project that benefits 18 Caribbean region countries to which Venezuela supplies oil and oil products under favorable payment conditions.

It is also part of Petrocaribe Energy Security Treaty (TSE), signed in 2007, by which signatory nations made a commitment to develop, as far as possible, projects for renewable energies promotion.

Since 2010, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has provided funds to Haitian government to develop a new energy infrastructure that takes advantage of country’s wind, solar and hydroelectric potential.

Among the projects financed are Peligre hydroelectric plant rehabilitation, country’s largest renewable energy source.

The institution also funds projects to develop solar energy use as energy source in health and education sectors.

Devastating consequences caused by frequent earthquakes in much of the Caribbean country leave population exposed to social instability dangers still present.

Resultado de imagen de potabilizadoras solares móviles

One specific action is mobile water treatment plants use, which allow different types of water purification and obtain productions from 500 to 7,500 liters / day, according to the water source; only with the energy of its 3 photovoltaic panels.

Charcoal (70% of national energy consumption) is the main energy source in kitchens of majority Haiti inhabitants, lacking in electrical energy. The result is that today forest area only covers 2% of territory.

Deforestation is a direct cause of soil erosion, which increases Haiti’s vulnerability to extreme weather events such as hurricanes, droughts and floods that may be more intense each year as a climate change result.

But little by little, renewable energy makes its way.

Toussaint Louverture Avenue, one of main arteries of Port-au-Prince, lights up every night with its solar lamps; as well as other public spaces of this capital and some municipalities of the country.

Resultado de imagen de energía solar haití

The Nouvelle Grand Anse Fundation has signed an agreement with the NGO Cubasolar to create in Dekade town a renewable energy reference center for surrounding region and the whole country.

Haiti president-elect made a tour of energy plants in Dominican Republic in early 2017.

He visited plants of Punta Catalina project (2 coal plants), Monte Plata Solar project and AES Dominicana consortium’s electricity generation plant; which supplies 40% of the energy consumed by the country.

It’s a good gesture.

Dominican Republic and Haiti must normalize their relations, as Dominicans and Haitians must work together and collaborate to improve their energy generation matrix.

All you need is Sun. All you need is Sopelia.

The Solar Module

Cells are silicon in the most used modules, element which is the main component of the silica, the material of the sand.

The regional production capacity distribution differs significantly depending on product type and its value chain position.

Solar grade silicon production capacity is headed by the US; followed by Europe, China, Japan and the rest of Asia.

Silicon cells and modules production capacity is dominated by Chinese and Taiwanese manufacturers; followed by Europeans, Japanese and the US.

Thin-film manufacturers must still optimize production to reach optimal cost structure to be competitive.

A difficult task with much lower prices for polysilicon, resulting in a significant decrease in silicon modules prices.

Resultado de imagen de fabricación panle solar

In order to avoid scarcity or oversupply cases, it is of utmost importance to guarantee supply, demand stability, based on a sustainable market so that the industry can foresee the growth of the same and plan its capacities.

Photovoltaic systems demand depends to a large extent on general economic climate and, most importantly, on governments policies to support their development.

Tariffs, along with administrative procedures and grid connection simplification, as well as priority grid access are policies aimed to guaranteeing sustainable demand.

A silicon cell provides a voltage of about 0.5 V and a maximum power of between 1 and 2 W.

In module manufacturing process, a certain number of cells must be in series connected to produce voltages of 6, 12 or 24 V indicated for most applications.

To produce a 12 V module, you need between 30 and 40 cells.

Cells connecting process is done by a special welding that joins the back of a cell with the front face of the adjacent one.

After electrical interconnections are completed, cells are encapsulated in a sandwich structure (tempered glass laminate – EVA – EVA – polymer cells).

The structure varies by manufacturer.

Subsequently a vacuum sealing is carried out, introducing it in a special furnace for its lamination, making tight the assembly.

If they have a metallic support frame, module perimeter is first surrounded with neoprene or some other material that protects it.

Resultado de imagen de silicio solar

Once positive and negative connections are mounted, following controls are performed to ensure a 20-year service life with acceptable performance levels:

– Thermal cycles (-40 ° to 90 ° C)
– Humidity cycles.
– Freezing cycles.
– Wind resistance.
– Mechanical strength.
– High electric shock resistance.
– Saline atmosphere test (for marine environments).

Manufacture, performance, electrical and mechanical characteristics of photovoltaic module are determined in product technical specifications provided by the manufacturer.

As in solar cell, following parameters are important:

– Module maximum power or peak power PmaxG.
– IPmax: Intensity when power is maximum or current at maximum power point.
– VPmax: voltage when power is also maximum or voltage at maximum power point.

Other parameters are:

– IscG short-circuit current.
– Open circuit voltage VocG.

These parameters are obtained under standard conditions of universal use according to EN61215. Established as follows and the manufacturer must specify:

* Irradiance: 1000 W / m2 (1 Kw / m2)
* Incident radiation spectral distribution: AM 1.5 (air mass)
* Normal incidence
* Cell temperature: 25ºC

Modules working conditions may be very different once installed, so it is advisable to know variations that can occur, in order to make calculations relevant corrections.

In practice, module power decreases by approximately 0.5% for each cell temperature increase degree cell above 25 ° C.

To avoid having to calculate radiation average intensities, we can assume that cell average working temperature is 20º higher than ambient temperature.

For this concept, yield drops to 90%. In not based on crystalline silicon technologies, yield lower is smaller.

This is an extract of contents included in Technical-Commercial Photovoltaic Solar Energy Manual and Sopelia e-learning training .

All you need is Sun. All you need is Sopelia.

Guatemala Solar PV

Since late 90s, the Guatemalan government has promoted investments in electrification through the Rural Electrification Plan (PER).

The arrival of photovoltaic systems in rural areas is turning community’s development as well as in private homes.

Also in industry and services sector, whose energy saving makes them more competitive and in agricultural activity in which applications such as photovoltaic irrigation pumps are being used.

Although these initiatives have numerous support from non-profit institutions and organizations, the initial cost of equipment acquiring remains a barrier.

The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) approved in 2015 a $ 55 million loan to help Guatemala improve and expand national electricity service coverage.

The executing agency is the National Institute of Electrification (INDE).

In 2015, the largest solar power plant in Central America and the Caribbean with 50 MW of installed capacity begin to operate.

In its second phase it reached 85 MW, approaching the 2 largest projects in Latin America located in Chile and Honduras (100 MW each).

Resultado de imagen de planta solar horus I

The 50 MW Horus I plant is located in Santa Rosa area, near Chiquimulilla village, is equipped with an east-west axis tracker and occupies a 175 hectares plot.

30 Guatemalan companies participated in its construction and its production represents approximately 1.25% of the energy produced annually in the country.

The second phase, Horus II, contributes with 35 MW more.

New distributors supply contracts (to 15 years), that began the May 1st of 2015 and suppose the substitution of fossil technologies by hydroelectric, solar and wind; have led to a tariffs drop.

In November 2016, the National Electric Energy Commission (CNEE) published information about energy matrix composition with 66.8% of renewable generation and 33.2% with non-renewable resources.

37% is hydroelectric generation, 21.6% coal and 24.2% biomass. The rest is solar, geothermal, wind, natural gas, biogas, diesel and bunker; according to information published by the CNEE.

Electric coverage reaches 90% of population and there is a surplus of 1000 MW in electrical energy generation that is exported to Central America. This translates into $ 100 million annual revenues.

According to Electric Subsector in Guatemala report published by the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM), up to June 2016 there are installed 3 photovoltaic plants connected to the national system with a power of around 85 MW.

In 2015 the contribution of solar power plants was 149.6 GWh, including the operation of Sibo in the municipality of Estanzuela, Zacapa, and Horus I and II in Chiquimulilla, Santa Rosa.

Resultado de imagen de energía solar guatemala

In the future agenda of electricity sector authorities there are at least 6 solar generation projects:

* La Avellana, Taxisco El Jobo (between 1 and 1.5 MW) and Medax Solar (1.7 MW); which will be located in Taxisco municipality, Santa Rosa

* Buena Vista (between 1 and 1.5 MW) and Solaris I (2.5 MW); which will operate in Jutiapa.

All you need is Sun. All you need is Sopelia.

Solar Layout (PV)

Solar Layout is the App for collectors and solar modules on site positioning.

This is the most intuitive Solar App of the market.

To use it on field is not necessary to have an Internet connection because it works from place latitude, obtained by GPS.

Today we will see PV solar energy part.

To begin press right command represented by the figure of house with the solar module and the cable with the plug in the initial screen.

If our Smartphone GPS is not enabled, the App will ask us to activate it to locate our position.

Intermittent earth planet image immediately appear with the legend “Localizing”.

When our device GPS have located our position, the following screen appears to confirm it.

By confirming our location Solar Equipment Use Menu will display.

In the same we find 4 applications:

1- Winter use: represented by the snow image
2- All year use: represented by flower, sun, leaf and snow images
3- Spring / summer use: represented by flower and sun images
4- On-grid connection: represented by the plug image

By selecting one of the 4 applications, Options Menu will display.

There are 3 variables in the Menu:

1- Inclination: represented by module and angle image
2- Orientation: represented by module and cardinal points image
3- Distance: represented by 3 modules rows image

By pressing the Inclination option, we get recommended inclination value for location and solar application selected, accompanied by some Tips considering losses to take into account.

Pressing Orientation option, we obtain procedure to fix modules orientation description and access to recommended compass App discharge, if we don´t have it.

Pressing Separation option, the Kind of Surface Menu is displayed for us to select the appropriate option (Horizontal / Non horizontal). If the surface on which the modules will be placed is horizontal, we only must enter Collector Height in cm data.

If the surface on which the modules will be placed is non horizontal, in addition to Collector Height in cm data, we must enter Surface Inclination Angle data. We will enter a positive value if it matches the modules inclination direction and a negative value if it is different.

In this way we obtain the Separation (distance) between modules rows in meters.

Pressing i button Tips related to shadows and singular locations (snow, desert and rain areas) are deployed.

Download Solar Layout and placed solar PV modules on site in the most intuitive way with Sopelia.

Flat Plate Solar Collector

Within the solar collectors without concentration we find the flat plate.

They were the most used, but have lost ground in favor of vacuum tube.

In flat collectors, the collector is located in a rectangular box (housing), whose usual dimensions are between 80 and 120 cm wide, 150 and 200 cm high, and 5 and 10 cm thick (although there are larger models).

Resultado de imagen de cubierta colector solar plano

The face exposed to the sun is covered by a very fine glass, while the remaining five faces are opaque and are thermally insulated.

Inside the box, on the face that is exposed to the sun, is placed a metal plate (absorber).

This plate is attached or welded to a series of conduits through which a heat transfer agent (usually water, glycol, or a mixture of both) flows.

A selective surface treatment is applied to mentioned plate or is simply black painted, to increase its heat absorption.

Flat solar collectors work taking advantage of greenhouse effect (the same principle that can be experienced when entering a car parked in the sun in summer).

After passing through the glass (transparent for wavelengths between 0.3 μm and 3 μm) radiation reaches absorber surface, which is heated and emits radiation with a wavelength between 4.5 μm 7.2 μm, for which the glass is opaque.

Approximately half of this last radiation diffuses to the outside, being lost; but the other half returns inward and thus contributes to absorber surface further heating.

As it passes through the box, the heat transfer fluid heats up and increases its temperature at absorber expense, which temperature will decrease.

The heat transfer fluid then transports that heat energy to where it is desired.

Resultado de imagen de cubierta colector solar plano

The flat solar collector is formed by 4 main elements:

1) Transparent cover: it must possess the necessary qualities (suitable transmission and thermal conductivity coefficients) to provoke the greenhouse effect and to losses reduce; ensuring manifold water and air sealing, in conjunction with housing and joints; do not keep outer surface dirt adhering so that rain easily slips.

2) Absorber: receives the solar radiation and converts it into heat that is transmitted to the heat transfer fluid.

Shapes are diverse: metal plates separated by a few millimeters, a metal plate with welded or embedded tubes or two metal plates with a circuit inside.

Face exposed to sun must capture the largest radiation amount so it is usually black painted or endowed with a selective surface (very absorbent to radiation and with low emissivity).

Paints are cheaper than selective surfaces and have a better overall thermal behavior at near-ambient temperatures, but are marred by ultraviolet radiation continued action and temperature variations between day and night.

Selective surfaces generally have a better behavior and are obtained by several layers superposition (metal and metal compounds) or special surface treatments.

The most modern manufacturing technique is laser welding.

3) Insulation: it is used to reduce thermal losses in absorber rear part that must be of low thermal conductivity. Materials can be glass wool, rock wool, cork, polyethylene or polyurethane.

4) Housing: generally made of aluminum or stainless steel, it protects and supports manifold elements, also allowing manifold anchoring and holding to assembly structure. It must withstand temperature changes (dilatations) without tightness losing and must resist corrosion.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

Guatemala Solar Thermal

In Guatemala, talking about solar radiation use for electric and thermal energy generation in homes seems a myth. And in the case of thermal, even more.

So far, according to Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) data, approximately two thirds of energy is produced with fossil fuels, which translates into high costs and environmental pollution.

A good part of that electricity is used in order to heat water for human consumption, especially for the shower.

During approximately 350 days a year there is sufficient solar radiation to meet 95% of hot water needs in Guatemala.

As in many countries of Central America, thermal energy generation from solar radiation is an industry almost unknown and often confused with electric energy generation.

The few households that have incorporated solar thermal energy experienced a minimum decrease of approximately 40% in their electric bill amount and will pay off the investment made in less than 3 years.

Resultado de imagen de solar térmica guatemala

Currently it is possible to find two types of solar heater systems technologies in the country: non-pressurized and pressurized.

The first is generally used for residential use because it is of little pressure and simple installation, and the second one is more used in industry and services sectors.

Experts and leaders from Latin America and the Caribbean gathered in Costa Rica to promote quality assurance mechanisms implementation in solar water heaters use, in order to increase technology confidence and stimulate its development in the region.

Issues such as standards, testing, labeling and certification, as well as the use of quality infrastructure to support regional policies on the promotion of solar thermal energy were considered.

Solar heating technology has arrived at a maturity, technological and of price, that nowadays allows developing national strategies as well as regional to promote water heating with solar energy.

Currently, less than 3% of solar thermal energy is used in Latin America and the Caribbean, so that better quality assurance mechanisms can lead to significant market growth.

Solar thermal energy can also be used to dry grains, especially coffee.

The drying system consists of solar collectors, recirculation pumps, water pipes, thermal insulation, storage tanks, precision fans and heat exchangers.

Solar collectors absorb solar energy, this is transmitted to the water that flows through the pipes. The hot liquid is stored in the central tank, from where it flows to the mechanized dryers. At this point, water-air heat exchangers dehydrate and heat the ambient air, drying the grains.

Resultado de imagen de secador solar café

In El Novillero village, Santa Lucía Utatlán, Sololá, there is the ecological park and protected area Corazón del Bosque, a project of the Artisanal Association for La Guadalupana Development.

Linking community benefit with natural resources sustainable use were concerns that originated this project, which to date generate 13 permanent and more than 800 temporary jobs.

Solar energy wherever you are with Sopelia.

Solar Layout (Thermal)

Solar Layout is the App for collectors and solar modules on site positioning.

This is the most intuitive Solar App of the market.

To use it on field is not necessary to have an Internet connection because it works from place latitude, obtained by GPS.

Today we will see solar thermal energy part.

To begin press left command shown in initial screen with the house, the solar collector and the user taking a hot shower.

If our Smartphone GPS is not enabled, the App will ask us to activate it to locate our position.

Intermittent earth planet image immediately appear with the legend “Localizing”.

When our device GPS have located our position, the following screen appears to confirm it.

By confirming our location the Solar Equipment Use Menu displays.

There are 3 applications in the Menu:

1 Hot water: represented by a shower image
2- Heating represented by a radiator image
3- Outdoor pool conditioning: represented by a pool ladder image

By selecting one of the 3 applications, Options Menu will display.

There are 3 variables in the Menu:

1- Inclination: represented by collector and angle image
2- Orientation: represented by collector and cardinal points image
3- Distance: represented by 3 collectors rows image

By pressing the Inclination option, we get recommended inclination value for location and solar application selected, accompanied by some Tips considering collector type used.

Pressing Orientation option, we obtain procedure to fix collectors orientation description and access to recommended compass App discharge, if we don´t have it.

Pressing Separation option, the Kind of Surface Menu is displayed for us to select the appropriate option (Horizontal / Non horizontal). If the surface on which the collectors will be placed is horizontal, we only must enter Collector Height in cm data.

If the surface on which the collectors will be placed is non horizontal, in addition to Collector Height in cm data, we must enter Surface Inclination Angle data. We will enter a positive value if it matches the collector inclination direction and a negative value if it is different.

In this way we obtain the Separation (distance) between collector’s rows in meters.

Pressing i button Tips related to shadows and singular locations (snow, desert and rain areas) are deployed.

Download Solar Layout and placed solar thermal collectors on site in the most intuitive way with Sopelia.

(Español) 10 Semanas Solares Fotovoltaicas

Sorry, this entry is only available in European Spanish.